Birds of the World

COAST BIRDS
  Contents
  Index
WORLD BIRDS
  Contents
  Index

ANECDOTES

  Sage-Grouse WY
 
 
 

TRAITS
 Ratites
 Tinamous
 Cracids/Galli
 Waterfowl
   Screamers
   Ducks

 Penguins
 Loons
 Grebes
 Procellarids
   Albatrosses
   Petrels
   Storm-Petrels

Totipalmate Swm

   Tropicbirds
   Gannets/Boobies
   Pelicans
   Cormorants
   Anhingas
   Frigatebirds

 
Waders
   Herons
   Ibises
   Storks  

 NW Vultures
 Flamingos
 Raptors
 Gruiformes
   Buttonquail
   Bustards
   Cranes
   Rails

 Shorebirds
   Sandgrouse
   Plovers
   Oystercatchers
   Stilts
   Sandpipers
   Gulls/Terns
   Auks

 Pigeons
 Parrots
 Turacos
 Cuckoos
 Owls
 Frogmouths
 Nightjars
 Swifts/Humbd
 Colies
 Coraciae

   Hornbills
   Hoopoes
   Trogons
   Rollers
   Kingfishers
   Bee-eaters
   Jacamars/Puffbd

 
Pici
   Honeyguides
   Woodpeckers
   Barbets/Toucans

PASSERINES
   NZ WRENS
   OW SUBOSC

      Broadbills
      Pittas

 NW SUBOSC
   NW Flycatchers

   Becards
   Cotingas
   Manakins
   Antbirds
   Ovenbirds
   Woodcreepers
   Antthrushes
   Tapaculos 

 OSCINES
 Lyre-/Scrub-birds
 Bowerbirds
 Aust. Wrens
 Honeyeaters
 Scrubwrens
 Aust. Robins
 Kinglets
 Shrikes
 Vireos
 Whistlers
 Corvids
 Birds-of-Paradse
 OW Orioles
 Cuckoo-shrikes
 Fantails
 Drongos
 Monarchs
 Bush-shrikes
 Wattle-eyes
 Vangas
 Waxwings
 Dippers
 Thrushes
 OW Flycatchers
 Starlings
 Mimids
 Nuthatches
 N Creepers
 Wrens
 Gnatcatchers
 Tits/Parids
 Larks
 Swallows
 Leaf-Warblers
 Bulbuls
 Cisticolas
 White-eyes
 Babblers
 OW Warblers
 Flowerpeckers
 Sunbirds
 OW Sparrows
 Accentors
 Pipits
 Estridids
 Weavers
 Whydahs
 9-prim. Oscines

   Fringillines
   Carduelines
   Hawaiian Honycrp
   NW Sparrows
   NW Warblers
   Tanagers
   Cardinals
   NW Blackbirds

TOP

 
Craciformes - Galliformes
 
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NEORNITHES, NEOGNATHAE, GALLOANSERAE
CRACIFORMES/GALLIFORMES
Families - Mound-builders, Cracids, Guineafowl, New World Quail, Pheasants and allies
Subfamilies - Pheasants/Partridges, Grouse/Ptarmigans, Turkeys
 
Species:   
Plain Chachalaca, Helmeted Guineafowl, Ring-necked Pheasant, Common Peafowl
 
Images:   
"Red Jungle Fowl," Australian Brush-turkey, Helmeted Guineafowl, Ring-necked Pheasant,
Dusky Grouse, Greater Sage Grouse, Wild Turkey
 
  Class Aves - Birds
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     Subclass Neornithes - Modern Birds
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        Infraclass Neognathae - Birds with a modern palate
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     The remaining species of birds belong in the Neognathae with 9,615 species placed in 2,043 genera (Sibley & Monroe, 1990). These birds have a palate other than the paleognathous palate of the Paleognathae (they are "neognathous"). All come from ancestors that could fly and the greatest majority retain this capability.
   Traditional classifications begin this taxa with fairly specialized waterbirds - penguins, loons, grebes, etc. Sibley and Monroe (1990) begin their classification with the Parvclass Galloanserae which includes cracids (guans, chachalacas, currasows, and megapodes, scrubfowl, and brush-turkeys), galli (pheasants, grouse, guineafowl, quail) and the Anserimorphae with screamers and waterfowl - ducks, geese, and swans. This is followed by the Parvclass Neoaves. (See World Contents). DIckinson (2003) similarly begins with cracids and galli followed by the Anseres. This is now the accepted arrangement in most classifications. See Phylogeny.
   Unfortunately, there is no consensus about basal lineages within the Neoaves. Sibley and Ahlquist (1990) place the Pici (honey guides, woodpeckers, barbets, toucans, etc), often regarded as "near passerines," at the base. Dickinson (2003) follows the more traditional arrangement beginning with waterbirds (penguins, loons, procellariids, etc.). This will probably remain a problem until someone has better data and a more comprehensive insight.
   In our discussion of Birds of the World, we will follow roughly the order used by Sibley and Monroe (1990) for the Galloanseri. Beyond this our order is probably closer to that of Dickinson (2003) and Harris (2009). However, because Sibley's field guide is most used, we will follow his arrangement of orders and families for the Birds of Seabrook Island. This is a familiar and useful classification even though it may not reflect a strict phylogenetic order... Note that any linear construct is unable to convey the branching pattern of evolution and becomes a compromise of history and knowledge.
  Jungle Fowl


"Red Jungle Fowl," Gallus sp. Kauai, HI.
A better beginning model or "urvogel" than penguins and loons?

Wiki

           Parvclass Galloanserae  
     A basal group of the Neognathae that includes the Order Craciformes (Guans, Chachalacas, and Megapodes) and, grouped together, the Order Galliformes (Grouse, Pheasants, Turkeys, Guinefowl, New World Quail, etc.) and the Order Anseriformes (Screamers, Ducks, Geese, and Swans).
 
  Order Craciformes - Cracids
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  Order Galliformes - Fowl-like Birds, Galli
  ~290 species, 80 genera (below). Worldwide.  They are absent only in Polynesia, New Zealand, and the Antarctic. Cracids are confined to the Neotropics, megapodes to Australasia, southeast Asia, the Philippines and islands in the southwest Pacific. New World quail occur in the Americas, guinea fowl in Africa and Madagascar, grouse in the Holarctic, turkeys in North America, and partridges in Eurasia and Africa. Pheasants are concentrated in southeast Asia and the francolins in Africa and Asia. Most gamebirds feed on the ground but have powerful wing muscles used to escape danger. Their feet are well-developed and many use them to scratch on the ground for food.

Sibley and Monroe (1990) separate the gallinaceous birds into two orders with five families as follows:
   Superorder Gallimorphae (283 species, 75 genera)
      Order Craciformes - Cracids (69 species, 17 genera)
         Family Cracidae - Guans, Chachalacas, Currasows (50 species, 11 genera)
         Family Megapodiidae - Megapodes, Scrubfowl, Brush-turkeys (19 species, 6 genera)
      Order Galliformes - Galli (214 species, 58 genera)
         Family Phasianidae - Pheasants, Old World Quail, Grouse, Turkeys (177 species, 45 genera)
         Family Numididae - Guineafowl (6 species, 4 genera)
         Family Odontophoridae - New World Quail (6 species, 4 genera)

Other sources place the families in this group in to a single order, the Order Galliformes:

Clements (2007) lists seven families of Galli (with 279 species):
   Family Megapodidae - Megapodes (21 species)
   Family Cracidae - Guans, Chachalacas, Currasows (50 species)
   Family Meleagridae - Turkeys (2 species)
   Family Tetraonidae - Grouse, Ptarmigans, Prairie-Chickens (19 species)
   Family Odontophoridae - New World Quail (31 species)
   Family Phasianidae - Pheasants, Partridges (155 species)
   Family Numididea - Guineafowl (1 species)

Dickinson (2003) and Harris (2009) recognize the following six families (with 290 species, 80 genera):
   Family Megapodidae - Megapodes (22 species, 7 genera)
   Family Cracidae - Chachalacas, Currasows, Guans (50 species, 11 genera)
   Family Numididae - Guineafowl (6 species, 4 genera)
   Family Odontophoridae - New World Quail (32 species, 9 genera)
   Family Phasianidae - Turkeys, Grouse, Pheasants, Partridges (180 species, 49 genera)

The AOU Checklist (2012) recognizes 4 families of this order found in North America (no megapodes occur on our continent):
   Family Cradicae - Chachalacas, Guans
   Family Numididea - Guineafowl
   Family  Odontophoridae - New World Quail
   Family Phasianidae -
      Subfamily Phasianinae - Pheasants, Peafowl
      Subfamily Tetranoninae - Grouse, Ptarmigans
      Subfamily Meleagridinae - Turkeys

   Galli are chicken-like birds. They are known as gallinaceous birds or galliforms ("galli"). They range from a 30 g Coturnix to 14 kg (or more for the turkey) [up to 120 lbs.]. Most are plumb birds with relatively small heads, moderate necks, and moderately long legs. Most have short rounded wings and fly only short distances (but fly powerfully when necessary) - none of the living galli are flightless. A few are long-distance migrants (Coturnix). Most are largely terrestrial. They are vegetarian and feed on the ground with short, stout beaks.
  Gallomorphs are generalized  birds. The superorder includes terrestrial or arboreal birds with 4 toes, a schizognathous palate, pelvic muscle formula (A)BCDXYV+. They have two carotids (except megapodes). The quadrate bone is double. Flexor tendons are Type 1. Except for megapodes they are eutaxic. They are holorhinal with impervious nares. The oil gland is variable, tufted to naked or absent. The syrinx is tracheobronchial. They have a large aftershaft. There are 10 primaries, 9-20 secondaries, 8-32 rectrices, and 16 cervical vertebrae. The crop (a diverticulum of the esophagus) is large and the gizzard (part of the stomach) is muscular. Some are monochromatic and monomorphic. The order includes, however, some of the most exaggerated cases of sexual dimorphism (differences in size or structure) and dichromatism (differences in coloration - including gaudy iridescent feathers) with the addition of colored wattles, spurs, and elegant tails which are fanned in elaborate displays. They have down only in the apteria (unfeathered areas).
   Most galli nest on the ground. They lay many eggs - clutches often exceed 10 eggs. Their eggs are usually white or monochrome. They are often polygynous or polyandrous (and sexually dimorphic). Young are precocial and nidifugous, hatching with their eyes open and with well developed down. Flight feathers grow rapidly and they fly early in their development.
   Megapodes are unique among birds - they incubate their eggs in mounds of rotting vegetation, hot sand, or volcanic ash. Young hatch and dig to the surface where they are completely independent, fully feathered and able to fly.
   The first domesticated bird was the Red Jungle Fowl, Gallus gallus, of southeast Asia (above) - giving rise to a wide range of domesticated chickens (Gallus domesticus). Over 16 billion are cultured today. Other domesticated gamebirds include turkeys and guinea fowl. Many pheasants are bred for their plumage and the Ring-necked (Chinese) Pheasant, Phasianus colchicus, has been transplanted from Asia to many areas of the world as a game bird.
   This group is placed as the stem group of the Neoaves by Sibley and Ahlquist (1990).
   In the past, buttonquail (Turnicidae), mesites (Mesitornithidae) and the hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin) were placed in this order. Buttonquail are now believed to be shorebirds, mesites are probably allied with the Gruiformes (rails), and the relations of the hoatzin remain obscure (possibly a separate order placed with the cuckoos or somewhere near the doves).
 
    Banner - Greater Sage-Grouse, Wyoming.