Birds of the World

COAST BIRDS
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WORLD BIRDS
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ANECDOTES

  Tundra Swans
 
 
 

TRAITS
 Ratites
 Tinamous
 Cracids/Galli
 Waterfowl
   Screamers
   Ducks

 Penguins
 Loons
 Grebes
 Procellarids
   Albatrosses
   Petrels
   Storm-Petrels

Totipalmate Swm

   Tropicbirds
   Gannets/Boobies
   Pelicans
   Cormorants
   Anhingas
   Frigatebirds

 
Waders
   Herons
   Ibises
   Storks  

 NW Vultures
 Flamingos
 Raptors
 Gruiformes
   Buttonquail
   Bustards
   Cranes
   Rails

 Shorebirds
   Sandgrouse
   Plovers
   Oystercatchers
   Stilts
   Sandpipers
   Gulls/Terns
   Auks

 Pigeons
 Parrots
 Turacos
 Cuckoos
 Owls
 Frogmouths
 Nightjars
 Swifts/Humbd
 Colies
 Coraciae

   Hornbills
   Hoopoes
   Trogons
   Rollers
   Kingfishers
   Bee-eaters
   Jacamars/Puffbd

 
Pici
   Honeyguides
   Woodpeckers
   Barbets/Toucans

PASSERINES
   NZ WRENS
   OW SUBOSC

      Broadbills
      Pittas

 NW SUBOSC
   NW Flycatchers

   Becards
   Cotingas
   Manakins
   Antbirds
   Ovenbirds
   Woodcreepers
   Antthrushes
   Tapaculos 

 OSCINES
 Lyre-/Scrub-birds
 Bowerbirds
 Aust. Wrens
 Honeyeaters
 Scrubwrens
 Aust. Robins
 Kinglets
 Shrikes
 Vireos
 Whistlers
 Corvids
 Birds-of-Paradse
 OW Orioles
 Cuckoo-shrikes
 Fantails
 Drongos
 Monarchs
 Bush-shrikes
 Wattle-eyes
 Vangas
 Waxwings
 Dippers
 Thrushes
 OW Flycatchers
 Starlings
 Mimids
 Nuthatches
 N Creepers
 Wrens
 Gnatcatchers
 Tits/Parids
 Larks
 Swallows
 Leaf-Warblers
 Bulbuls
 Cisticolas
 White-eyes
 Babblers
 OW Warblers
 Flowerpeckers
 Sunbirds
 OW Sparrows
 Accentors
 Pipits
 Estridids
 Weavers
 Whydahs
 9-prim. Oscines

   Fringillines
   Carduelines
   Hawaiian Honycrp
   NW Sparrows
   NW Warblers
   Tanagers
   Cardinals
   NW Blackbirds

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Anseriformes
 
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Anseriformes
Families - Screamers, Magpie-Goose, Whistling Ducks, (White-backed Ducks)
Family - Ducks, Geese, and Swans
Subfamilies - Geese and Swans, Freckled Duck, Shelducks, True Ducks
Tribes - Perching Ducks, Dabblers, Bay Ducks (Pochards), Sea Ducks, Stiff-tailed Ducks
 
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All species of swans
 
Species:   
White-chinned Pintail
 
Images:   
Tundra Swan, Canada Goose, Mallard, Fulvous Whistling-Duck, Canada Goose, Snow Goose, Common Shelduck, American Wigeon, Wood Duck, Blue-winged Teal, Mallards (dabbling), Canvasbacks, Red-breasted Merganser, Bufflehead, Ruddy Duck
Chinese (domestic) Goose - "Jake," Canada Goose, Whooper Swan, Black Swan,
Common Shelduck
, Australian Shelduck, Pacific Black Duck, American Wigeon,
Northern Shoveler
, Mallard
 
  Order Anseriformes - Waterfowl
Wiki     ToL     EoL
EXAMPLE
  Waterfowl are a diverse assemblage that includes four relatively distinct groups: (1) the screamers of South America (3 species, 3 genera); (2) the Magpie Goose found in Australia and New Guinea (1 species, 1 genus); and (3) the whistling-ducks (9 species, 2 genera), and (4) the stiff-tailed ducks, Freckled Duck, swans, and geese, and typical ducks (148 species in 43 genera according to Sibley & Monroe, 1990 and Dickinson, 2003 with 5 extinct species, and 150 species according to Clements, 2007). They are found world-wide in temperate and tropical regions and on many islands (except high deserts and permanent ice). All are swimming birds with webbed feet and most have a broad, flattened bill. They breed and feed primarily in wet environments - most preferring freshwater habitats with some found in coastal waters. They are typically social birds. They are strong fliers and many migrate long distances.
   Currently, many systematists view the Anseres and Cracids/Galli as sister-groups and place them together in  the Galloanserae, a sister group to the Neoaves - other modern birds. Sibley and Ahlquist (1990), Dickinson (2003), and Harris (2009) place the Galloanserae first in their taxonomic lists beginning with cracids/galli and following with waterfowl.  The earliest anseriform lived during the Cretaceous and the Anseriformes originated when the Galloanserae split into two main lineages. The ancestors developed their characteristic bill structure with a modified tongue acting as a pump to draw water in at the tip and expel it along the sides, filtering it through lamellae which trap fine food particles. As the group radiated, alternative feeding strategies have given rise to grazers and piscivores with the same basic structure.
   Many taxonomists agree with the current understanding of relationships within the higher taxonomic levels of the Anseriformes.
   Waterfowl vary greatly in size - from teal to swans. Their palate is desmognathous. They have 2 carotids. The nostrils are holorhinal and pervious. Their bill is broad, often with lamellae for straining food particles. They all have webbed feet (palmate) with broad, flat toes and dense, waterproof plumage. Their oil gland is large, tufted, and bilobed - it provides a dense water-proof coating for feathers and down. Waterfowl have 11 primaries with the outer feather reduced, and are diastaxic. Aftershafts are small or absent.  The sternum has one pair of incisions (sometimes closed at the posterior margin) and no spina interna. They have basipterygoid processes, articulating with the pterygoids far forward. They have large caeca (except Mergus), a trait associated with plant food. The syrinx has two pairs of extrinsic muscles.
   They have diverse feeding habits - a few eat fish; many feed on mollusks, crustaceans, and aquatic insects, but plant material constitutes the majority of the diet in many. Swans, geese, and whistling-ducks are almost entirely grazing vegetarians. Some forage on land; many are "dabblers,"  feeding on food items on or near the surface. Many "upend," tipping in the water with the tail upward and the head and neck submerged. Many also dive deeply and swim underwater using their feet (none are wing-propelled divers).
   Most nest on the ground, some in tree holes or in rock crevices or burrows - usually near water. The nest is lined with down plucked from the female's breast. Waterfowl lay large clutches. Their eggs are white or brownish. In many ducks, males desert the nest sometime during incubation and the female is left to care for the chicks. In swans, geese, and some other species, pair bonds last through the breeding season (and years). Some species are monogamous, others are polygamous. Some engage in brood parasitism.
   Young are nidifugous with thick down. They take to the water within a day or two of hatching are follow their mother (parent), learning to feed by themselves (Magpie Geese feed their young for a period). Many ducks abandon their young before they can fly but young swans and geese may remain with their parents for many months - even into the fall migration and winter. 
 
  Tundra Swan Canada Geese
Mallard

Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos,
male, Litchfield Beach
                                        SI Web Link
 
Tundra Swan, Cygnus columbianus.,
Bear Island WMA
                                                  SI Web Link
Canada Goose, Branta canadensis,
with young. Bear Island WMA                                                  SI Web Link
     
       
   
   
     
       
       
 







































   
  Banner - Tundra Swans, North Cape, Lake Erie, OH/MI
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