Birds of the World

COAST BIRDS
  Contents
  Index
WORLD BIRDS
  Contents
  Index

ANECDOTES

  Lari
 
 
 

TRAITS
 Ratites
 Tinamous
 Cracids/Galli
 Waterfowl
   Screamers
   Ducks

 Penguins
 Loons
 Grebes
 Procellarids
   Albatrosses
   Petrels
   Storm-Petrels

Totipalmate Swm

   Tropicbirds
   Gannets/Boobies
   Pelicans
   Cormorants
   Anhingas
   Frigatebirds

 
Waders
   Herons
   Ibises
   Storks  

 NW Vultures
 Flamingos
 Raptors
 Gruiformes
   Buttonquail
   Bustards
   Cranes
   Rails

 Shorebirds
   Sandgrouse
   Plovers
   Oystercatchers
   Stilts
   Sandpipers
   Gulls/Terns
   Auks

 Pigeons
 Parrots
 Turacos
 Cuckoos
 Owls
 Frogmouths
 Nightjars
 Swifts/Humbd
 Colies
 Coraciae

   Hornbills
   Hoopoes
   Trogons
   Rollers
   Kingfishers
   Bee-eaters
   Jacamars/Puffbd

 
Pici
   Honeyguides
   Woodpeckers
   Barbets/Toucans

PASSERINES
   NZ WRENS
   OW SUBOSC

      Broadbills
      Pittas

 NW SUBOSC
   NW Flycatchers

   Becards
   Cotingas
   Manakins
   Antbirds
   Ovenbirds
   Woodcreepers
   Antthrushes
   Tapaculos 

 OSCINES
 Lyre-/Scrub-birds
 Bowerbirds
 Aust. Wrens
 Honeyeaters
 Scrubwrens
 Aust. Robins
 Kinglets
 Shrikes
 Vireos
 Whistlers
 Corvids
 Birds-of-Paradse
 OW Orioles
 Cuckoo-shrikes
 Fantails
 Drongos
 Monarchs
 Bush-shrikes
 Wattle-eyes
 Vangas
 Waxwings
 Dippers
 Thrushes
 OW Flycatchers
 Starlings
 Mimids
 Nuthatches
 N Creepers
 Wrens
 Gnatcatchers
 Tits/Parids
 Larks
 Swallows
 Leaf-Warblers
 Bulbuls
 Cisticolas
 White-eyes
 Babblers
 OW Warblers
 Flowerpeckers
 Sunbirds
 OW Sparrows
 Accentors
 Pipits
 Estridids
 Weavers
 Whydahs
 9-prim. Oscines

   Fringillines
   Carduelines
   Hawaiian Honycrp
   NW Sparrows
   NW Warblers
   Tanagers
   Cardinals
   NW Blackbirds

TOP

 
Charadriiformes / Lari
 
Skip to:   
Shorebirds, Charadriiformes
Pterocli - Sandgrouse
Charadrii - Shorebirds
Families: Seedsnipe, Plains-wanderer, Thick-knees, Plovers and Lapwings, Oystercatchers,
    IbisbillStilts and Avocets, Painted Snipe, Jacanas, Magellanic Plover, Sheathbills,
    Sandpipers, Phalaropes
Lari - Gulls, Terns, Skimmers
Families: Crab Plovers, Pratiincoles and Coursers, Jaegers and Skuas, Gulls, Terns, Skimmers
Alcae - Auks
Families: Auks
 
Species:   
Pacific Golden-Plover, Southern Lapwing, Blackish Oystercatcher,
American Black Oystercatcher
, Silver Gull, Western Gull, Heermann's Gull, Lava Gull, Swallow-tailed Gull, Kelp Gull, Dolphin Gull, South American Tern
 
Images:   
Sanderling, Willet, Piping and Semipalmated Plovers,
Masked, Southern, Red-wattled, and Northern Lapwings
, White-tailed Plover,
Eurasian, Blackish, and American Black Oystercatchers, Pied Stilt,
Northern and Wattled Jacanas, Snowy SheathbillWillet, Sanderling, Western Sandpiper,
Red Phalarope, Alaskan shorebirds, Laughing Gull, Forster's Tern, Black Skimmer,
South Polar Skua
, Bonaparte's Gull, Fairy Tern, Black Skimmer,
Common Murre, Pigeon Guillemot, Klittliz's Murrelet, Black Guillemot, and Tufted Puffin
 
  "Lari" - Gulls, Terns, Skimmers
Wiki     Wiki     Wiki
     This is a second major conceptual grouping of charadriiforms - long-winged, relatively short-legged aquatic and aerial charadriiforms with their toes usually webbed and the first toe (hallux) absent or reduced. Most species have a stout bill with no cere and a decurved culmen at the tip.
   Males are usually larger with bigger bills than females. They are graceful fliers. Most breed colonially, often with other gulls and terns.
   The Lari also include the Auks (Alcidae) but they are distinctive enough that we will place them in the next conceptual cluster.
 
Laughing Gull
Forster's Tern
Black Skimmer
 
Laughing Gulls, Larus atricilla.
North Beach
                                                    Si Web
Forster's Tern, Sterna forsteri.
North Beach
                                                    Si Web
Black Skimmer, Rynchops niger.
North Beach
                                                    Si Web
 
  Family Dromadinae - Crab Plover
Wiki     ToL     EoL
  1 species in 1 genus (Dromas ardeola). Coasts of East Africa, Madagascar, Arabia, and south west Asia. Sibley and Monroe (1990) include the Crab Plover with Pratincoles and Coursers as a subfamily (Family Glareolidae). It may be related to thick-knees or pratincoles - others group it with the auks and gulls.
   This is an Old World species found on coasts and islands of the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Persian Gulf. Crab Plovers resenble plovers but are fairly-large with a compressed, ungrooved bill that is longer than the head. The upward directed lower mandible is used to open crab shells. Their large eye gives them the ability to feed in poor light and at night. Their nares are impervious with basal, oblong nostrils that are schizorhinal. The legs are long. A hallux is present and the toes are long and partially webbed. The middle claw is dilated on the inner side and notched. Their wings are held stiffly. In flight, the feet extend beyond the tail. They are black and white (pied). The tail is gray. The legs are slate colored and the bill is black.
   Often social - flying up to 12 miles to communal roosts. They feed on mudflats or sandy beaches, usually in flocks of 20 or so. They grab their prey and swallow it whole or hammer it with the bill to remove claws and legs. Their diet is mostly crabs but they also eat mollusks, shrimp and mudskippers. They are coastal, usually found on mudflats, sandy beaches and lagoons. They are noisy and vocal with continuous communication among members of the flock.
   The breed in large colonies. They nest in burrows, digging a downward sloping tunnel up to 2 m long in sand. They lay 1 (2) eggs. Parents may leave the egg unattended for up to 58 hours, relying on the heat of the sun to warm the burrow. Their young are unique among waders - they are nicidolous (and unable to walk at hatching) - they remain in the nest for several days after hatching where both parents feed the chick, continuing after fledging for a relatively long period.
 
  Family Glareolidae - Pratincoles and Coursers
Wiki     ToL     EoL
  17 species, 5 (4) genera. Southern Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia. One species has reached Alaska.
There are two subfamilies:
   Subfamily Cursoriinae - coursers (including the Egyptian Plover, Pluvianus aegyptius)
   Subfamily Glareolinae - pratincoles
Sibley and Monroe (1990) group this family with the Crab Plover but the two probably deserve family status.
   They are small to medium waders with a short arched bill and long pointed wings. Coursers are plover-like, standing upright, and are more adapted for running - they have long legs and are more terrestrial than pratincoles. Pratincoles usually have a more horizontal posture and are more aerial with longer wings, shorter legs and a forked tail. They resemble terns or large swallows. Sexes are alike. Coursers are cryptically colored in general. Pratincoles are pale with black flight feathers.
   Several have patterned lores. Their nares are impervious with oblong nostrils. The culmen is curved. They have 15 cervical vertebrae. The tarsus is transversely scutellate in front and behind. The middle toe is usually pectinate (comb-like). Pelvic muscles are ABXY+.
   Coursers are solitary or form in small groups. They forage in open, often arid, country and are largely terrestrial - much like plovers. They feed on large insects which they pursue on foot. They also run to escape predation. They tend to be crepuscular and nocturnal. Pratincoles usually feed in flight like swallows. Their flight is graceful and they are most active at dusk and dawn. They often feed in large numbers on wetlands and along the edges of lakes and rivers in open country, often with terns. Pratincoles may follow herds of mammals to feed on flushed insects - they also feed on insects attracted to lights. Both groups are largely insectivorous but some coursers may take mollusks and seeds.
   Pratincoles have high-patches notes and contact calls, often given in flight. Coursers are usually silent. Those breeding in temperate regions are long-distance migrants.
   All are monogamous. Coursers are solitary breeders, pratincoles nest colonially. Nests are minimal, usually scrapes on the ground (often in the shade). Coursers lay up to 2 eggs, pratincoles lay 4-5.. Both parents incubate (~20 days). Young fledge after 25-30 days and accompany their parents for a longer period.
       
       
       
       
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   
  Banner - Laughing Gulls. North Beach.