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Passeriformes, Oscines, Corvida - "Reguloidea"
 
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Corvida (-oidea), Reguloidea
Family: Fairy-bluebirds, Leafbirds, Kinglets and Goldcrests

 
Images:   
Ruby-crowned Kinglet
   
  Order Passeriformes - Perching Birds 
   Suborder Passeres - "Oscines," Song Birds
Wiki     ToL     EoL
Wiki     ToL
 

Passerines. Most passerines are smaller than members of non-passerine orders. They have a perching foot with three toes directed forward and the one (the hallux) backward with locking tendons to facilitate perching when their tendons are flexed. All passerines scratch by bringing the foot over the wing. Incubation ranges from 11 -21 days. Young are altricial - they hatch blind with little or no down - and nidicolous - spending 10-15 days or so in the nest.  Subsequent development is rapid and young approach adult mass at fledging. Parents provide care beyond fledging.
Oscines, Suborder Passeres, are our "song birds" with complex syringeal muscles used to produce varied and complex vocalizations.
Covida. Australasia center with old endemics and radiations including the corvids, Old World orioles, shrikes, and vireos.

 
  "Reguloidea" -  Fairy Bluebirds, Leafbirds, Kinglets and Allies
Sibley and Monroe (1990) follow the Australian Robins with Fairy-bluebirds and Leafbirds, both placed in the Family Irenidae. However, Clements (2007), Dickinson (2003), and Harris (2009) place them in two separate families, the Family Irenidae and Family Chloropseidae. Wikipedia suggests moreover that they might be included in a new superfamily including the Family Regulidae which Sibley and Monroe (1990) placed in the Sylvioidea. There seems to be a preponderance of opinion favoring this arrangement. This basal group could be placed within the Passeroidea (Passerida)?
   Note that the Tree of Life places the Irenidae with the Passerida.
 
  Family Irenidae – Fairy-bluebirds
Wiki    EoL
  2 species, 1 genus (Irena). Fairy-bluebirds occur in tropical southern Asia, Melanesia, Borneo, and the Philippines in forests and plantations.
   They are medium-sized but slender birds of open forest or scrub, foraging at all levels and occasionally flycatching insects and termites in flight. They are sexually dimorphic with males being dark blue and females a duller green. They have deep red eyes and a powerful bill. They eat fruit (figs) and some insects. They may also feed on nectar. 
   They lay 2-3 eggs in a flimsy cup nest placed in a tree. The female incubates for about 2 weeks. The chicks fledge in about 2 weeks and are cared for by both parents.
 
  Family Chloropseidae - Leafbirds
Wiki     EoL
  8 species, 1 genus (Chloropsis). India and southeast Asia through Melanesia to the Philippines.
   These are relatively small slender birds with a tapering, slightly decurved bill. Males are colorful patterns but, overall, they are largely greenish and blend with surrounding foliage. Their tongue is brush tipped. They have short and robust feet and legs. They are forest birds (evergreen and monsoon forests and dry scrub woodland). They are sexually dimorphic with the males displaying greens and yellows. They eat fruit (including figs), nectar, seeds, and some insets.
   Nests are suspended, high in the forest. They are build mostly by the female. She lays 2-3 eggs which she incubates for 2 weeks. Chicks fledge in about 2 weeks and are cared for by both parents.
 
  Family Regulidae – Kinglets, Goldcrests
Wiki     EoL
EXAMPLE
 
6 (6-5) species, 1 genus (Regulus). Northern Hemisphere. Old World with representatives in the New World (Holarctic).
   They are small, really active birds with a rounded body and medium-length tail. an eye-ring or eye stripe. Males have a colored crown patch. They are our smallest passerine (~6g - just a bit heavier than a nickel). They have a straight, slender, and slightly-notched bill. Regulus has basal nostrils with an oval opening in front of a groove. They have an indistinct operculum. The nostril is covered with a small, stiff, and characteristically-shaped feather. Their plumage is dense. They have 10 primaries with the tenth reduced in size. They have pleasant but soft songs that may be heard even in winter. They are arboreal, found mainly in coniferous trees. They are insectivorous and glean food actively from vegetation, low bushes, and even from the ground. Most continental species breed in coniferous forests. The firecrest prefers laurel forests. More northern breeders winter in various habitats - deciduous and second growth forests and scrub. They are active foragers, constantly moving as they feed. In our area they are winter residents. They are cold-hardy for their size. They will visit feeding stations, feeding on suet blocks and dropped shards of seeds.
   They tend to be monogamous and produce two broods. Their nests are bulky and often built in conifers.  They lay 5-13 eggs, incubated for 14-17 days. Young fledge in 16-22 days.
   
Ruby-throated Kinglet
Ruby-crowned Kinglet,
Regulus calendula.
Clemson
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  Banner - Ruby-crowned Kinglet. Clemson, SC.