Birds of the World

COAST BIRDS
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WORLD BIRDS
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ANECDOTES

  Shrikes/Vireos
 
 
 

TRAITS
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 Tinamous
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Totipalmate Swm

   Tropicbirds
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Waders
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 NW Vultures
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   Hornbills
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   Jacamars/Puffbd

 
Pici
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   Barbets/Toucans

PASSERINES
   NZ WRENS
   OW SUBOSC

      Broadbills
      Pittas

 NW SUBOSC
   NW Flycatchers

   Becards
   Cotingas
   Manakins
   Antbirds
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   Woodcreepers
   Antthrushes
   Tapaculos 

 OSCINES
 Lyre-/Scrub-birds
 Bowerbirds
 Aust. Wrens
 Honeyeaters
 Scrubwrens
 Aust. Robins
 Kinglets
 Shrikes
 Vireos
 Whistlers
 Corvids
 Birds-of-Paradse
 OW Orioles
 Cuckoo-shrikes
 Fantails
 Drongos
 Monarchs
 Bush-shrikes
 Wattle-eyes
 Vangas
 Waxwings
 Dippers
 Thrushes
 OW Flycatchers
 Starlings
 Mimids
 Nuthatches
 N Creepers
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 Tits/Parids
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 Leaf-Warblers
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 Cisticolas
 White-eyes
 Babblers
 OW Warblers
 Flowerpeckers
 Sunbirds
 OW Sparrows
 Accentors
 Pipits
 Estridids
 Weavers
 Whydahs
 9-prim. Oscines

   Fringillines
   Carduelines
   Hawaiian Honycrp
   NW Sparrows
   NW Warblers
   Tanagers
   Cardinals
   NW Blackbirds

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Passeriformes, Oscines, Corvida - Logrunners, Shrikes, and Vireos
 
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Corvida (-oidea)
Families: Logrunners and Chowchillas, Australo-Papuan Babblers and Pseudo-babblers,
    Shrikes, Vireos, Greenlets, Shrike-vireos, and Peppershrikes
 
Images:   
Loggerhead Shrike, Red-eyed Vireo
   
  Order Passeriformes - Perching Birds
   Suborder Passeres - "Oscines," Song Birds
Wiki     ToL     EoL
Wiki
     ToL
 

Passerines. Most passerines are smaller than members of non-passerine orders. They have a perching foot with three toes directed forward and the one (the hallux) backward with locking tendons to facilitate perching when their tendons are flexed. All passerines scratch by bringing the foot over the wing. Incubation ranges from 11 -21 days. Young are altricial - they hatch blind with little or no down - and nidicolous - spending 10-15 days or so in the nest.  Subsequent development is rapid and young approach adult mass at fledging. Parents provide care beyond fledging.
Oscines, Suborder Passeres, are our "song birds" with complex syringeal muscles used to produce varied and complex vocalizations.
Covida. Australasia center with old endemics and radiations including the corvids, Old World orioles, shrikes, and vireos.

   
  Logrunners, Pseudo-babblers, Shrikes, Vireos
The following four families are recognized by all sources. The logrunners and pseudo-babblers might form a superfamily?
 
  Family Orthonychidae – Logrunners, Chowchillas
Wiki    EoL
  2 (3) species 1 genus (Orthonyx). New Guinea and eastern Australia.
   The Northern Logrunner (O. novaeguineae) is local in distribution and terrestrial. It is found in coastal lowland forests on New Guinea . The Southern Logrunner (O. temminckii) inhabits subtropical or montane forests in Australia. Logrunners have barred wings with white. The chin and breast are white in males and orange in females. The flight feathers are short and curved and flight is weak. Tail feathers are broad with stiff shafts and no barbs toward the tip. The Chowchilla ( O. spaldingii - Queensland - rain forests) is larger with black plumage and a white throat (male) or orange throat (female). All species are semi-terrestrial with weak flight. They feed mostly on insects and larvae. 
   Males display with elaborate dances. They build domed nests, often near the ground. Logrunners lay 2 eggs, the Chowchilla 1. The female incubates for about 25 days and is fed on the nest by the male. Chicks fledge in about 18 days.
 
  Family Pomatostomidae – Australo-Papuan Babblers,
        Pseudo-babblers
Wiki    EoL
  5 (5) species 1 (2) genus (-era) (Pomatostomus, Garritornis). Australia and New Guinea.
   Small to medium-sized with a heavy decurved bill, a long tail and strong legs and feet. They are ground-feeding omnivores. All are gray-brown upperparts with paler underparts. They are highly social, living in  family groups and small flocks of up to 20 individuals. They forage communally and call continuously. They feed on smaller invertebrates, vertebrates, fruit and seeds. They live in a variety of habitats, ranging from lowland forests to Eucalyptus forests and dry scrubland.
   Nests are large and domed and are placed up to 6m in foliage or branches. They lay 1-6 eggs and females incubate alone (but are fed by the male and several helpers). Chicks are fed by all members of the group.
 
  Family Lanidae - True Shrikes
Wiki     ToL    EoL
EXAMPLE
  30 (30) species 3 (4) genera (Lanius, Corvinella, Urolestes, Eurocephalus). Most species are Old World but two occur in North America. Sibley and Ahlquist (1990) suggest that ancestral shrikes moved from Australia to Asia about 20-30 million years ago. Lanius probably radiated first in Africa and Eurasia and arrived more recently in North America.  They occur widely  in North and Middle America, Africa, and across the Palaearctic in sub-arctic areas and south into Melanesia. Some African species are known as “fiscals.”
   Shrikes (“butcher-birds”) are relatively small passerines that are active predators on song birds, small mammals, reptiles, and large insects (but they lack raptorial claws). They are generally found in open country and agricultural areas. Many have a black mask over the eyes and by large white wing spots. Many have contrasting patterns. They have a complete postbreeding molt. They are typically arboreal and forage by flying from their perch to capture prey large invertebrates, small mammals, or birds. A few may eat fruit. They regurgitate pellets containing bones, fur, feathers, and chitin. Shrikes may use their beak to capture and dismember larger prey which they impale on thorns or barbed wire - but their feet are not "raptorial." They may also store food for later meals. Some shrikes are gregarious and forage in small groups but our representative tends to be solitary.
   They have laterally compressed and strong bills, more or less hooked at the tip with a sub-terminal maxilllary notch and "tooth." This facilitates killing vertebrate prey. Rictal bristles are present. They have 10 primaries, and 12 tail feathers. The tail is long or graduated. They have bold patterns including a black mask. Juvenile plumages are transversely barred.
   Most shrikes breed in pairs and are monogamous or serially polygynous. Some are cooperative breeders. Nests are open cups. They lay 3-8 eggs. Incubation lasts 13-17 days and young remain in the nest for 13-21 days. The female does most of the incubating but the male provides food and both parents care for the young for several weeks after fledging.
 
Loggerhead Shrike
Loggerhead Shrike,
Lanius ludovicianus.
The Village
                     SI Web
 
 
  Family Vireonidae – Vireos, Peppershrikes, etc.
Wiki    Wiki    ToL    EoL
EXAMPLE
     Vireos (Vireo) (31 species) are primarily North American birds. Several species occur in the Caribbean, one on Bermuda, and two range as far south as Argentina.
   There are also 14 species of Neotropical greenlets (Hylophilus) that are found in South American with 3 in Central America and one reaching southern Mexico.     Wiki    EoL
   There are 4 species of shrike-vireos (Viroelanius) ranging from southern Mexico to Bolivia. These might form a monotypic family.    Wiki    EoL
   Finally, there are two species of pepper-shrikes (Cyclarhis) occurring from southern Mexico to Uruguay.    Wiki    EoL
                                                                
   Many earlier classifications have placed this family near the wood-warblers (Parulidae) due to their size and the tendency toward reduction in side of the 10th (outer) primary. However, evidence based on DNA places them with the Corvidae. Vireos are relatively small birds, typically greenish in color. They are insectivorous. They feed deliberately and, in the spring, are often heard singing as they forage. Peppershrikes are heavyset with a hooked, shrike-like bill. They are vocal but forage in the canopy and are hard to see.
   Vireos are New World insect-eaters. They are small arboreal passerines with the edges of both mandibles notched sub-terminally. They resemble warblers but have a thicker bill. The 10th primary is short (but somewhat variable). Their plumage is usually greenish, yellowish, or white, never barred, streaked, or spotted. Their rictal bristles are inconspicuous. Some have colored irises and many have eye rings. Vireos tend to have pale wing bars but greenlets have plain wings. Their tail is shorter than the wing.
   Vireos are generally solitary inhabitants of canopies, edges, and scrublands. Insects are their major dietary item. Their movements are unhurried and they often sing as they feed. They forage in trees and bushes but may also feed on the ground. They are deliberate, moving methodically along branches as they search for food. They may "flycatch." Many also eat berries in fall and winter.
   Nest-sites are usually among foliage. Their nest is a compact and basket-like cup with its rim woven into branches of a fork. Both parents build, incubate, and feed the young. They lay 2-5 eggs and both parents provide parental care.
   Song is an important tool for locating and identifying vireos.
    Red-eyed Vireo Red-eyed Vireo, Vireo olivaceus
The Spit. © Kiawah Island Bird Banding
                                                   SI Web
     
  Banner - Loggerhead Shrike.