Birds of the World

COAST BIRDS
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WORLD BIRDS
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ANECDOTES

  Muscicapoidea
 
 
 

TRAITS
 Ratites
 Tinamous
 Cracids/Galli
 Waterfowl
   Screamers
   Ducks

 Penguins
 Loons
 Grebes
 Procellarids
   Albatrosses
   Petrels
   Storm-Petrels

Totipalmate Swm

   Tropicbirds
   Gannets/Boobies
   Pelicans
   Cormorants
   Anhingas
   Frigatebirds

 
Waders
   Herons
   Ibises
   Storks  

 NW Vultures
 Flamingos
 Raptors
 Gruiformes
   Buttonquail
   Bustards
   Cranes
   Rails

 Shorebirds
   Sandgrouse
   Plovers
   Oystercatchers
   Stilts
   Sandpipers
   Gulls/Terns
   Auks

 Pigeons
 Parrots
 Turacos
 Cuckoos
 Owls
 Frogmouths
 Nightjars
 Swifts/Humbd
 Colies
 Coraciae

   Hornbills
   Hoopoes
   Trogons
   Rollers
   Kingfishers
   Bee-eaters
   Jacamars/Puffbd

 
Pici
   Honeyguides
   Woodpeckers
   Barbets/Toucans

PASSERINES
   NZ WRENS
   OW SUBOSC

      Broadbills
      Pittas

 NW SUBOSC
   NW Flycatchers

   Becards
   Cotingas
   Manakins
   Antbirds
   Ovenbirds
   Woodcreepers
   Antthrushes
   Tapaculos 

 OSCINES
 Lyre-/Scrub-birds
 Bowerbirds
 Aust. Wrens
 Honeyeaters
 Scrubwrens
 Aust. Robins
 Kinglets
 Shrikes
 Vireos
 Whistlers
 Corvids
 Birds-of-Paradse
 OW Orioles
 Cuckoo-shrikes
 Fantails
 Drongos
 Monarchs
 Bush-shrikes
 Wattle-eyes
 Vangas
 Waxwings
 Dippers
 Thrushes
 OW Flycatchers
 Starlings
 Mimids
 Nuthatches
 N Creepers
 Wrens
 Gnatcatchers
 Tits/Parids
 Larks
 Swallows
 Leaf-Warblers
 Bulbuls
 Cisticolas
 White-eyes
 Babblers
 OW Warblers
 Flowerpeckers
 Sunbirds
 OW Sparrows
 Accentors
 Pipits
 Estridids
 Weavers
 Whydahs
 9-prim. Oscines

   Fringillines
   Carduelines
   Hawaiian Honycrp
   NW Sparrows
   NW Warblers
   Tanagers
   Cardinals
   NW Blackbirds

TOP

 
Passeriformes, Oscines, Passerida, Muscicapoidea - Waxwings
 
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Passerida, Muscicapoidea,
Families: Palm-chat, Silky Flycatchers, Waxwings, Hypocolius, (Hawaiian Honeyeaters)
 
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All Waxwings
 
Images:   
Cedar Waxwing
   
  Order Passeriformes - Perching Birds
   Suborder Passeres - "Oscines," Song Birds
Wiki     ToL     EoL
Wiki     ToL
  Passerines. Most passerines are smaller than members of non-passerine orders. They have a perching foot with three toes directed forward and the one (the hallux) backward with locking tendons to facilitate perching when their tendons are flexed. All passerines scratch by bringing the foot over the wing. Incubation ranges from 11 -21 days. Young are altricial - they hatch blind with little or no down - and nidicolous - spending 10-15 days or so in the nest.  Subsequent development is rapid and young approach adult mass at fledging. Parents provide care beyond fledging.
Oscines, Suborder Passeres, are our "song birds" with complex syringeal muscles used to produce varied and complex vocalizations.
Passerida. Radiation in Eurasia, Africa and North America (with later colonization of South America). Passerida have two humeral fossae (Corvida have one).
Muscicapoidea - worldwide distribution of dull and mostly monomorphic birds centered in the Paleotropics.
 
  Parvorder (Infraorder) Passerida
Wiki     ToL
  3,556 species, 639 genera. The two Parvorders of Sibley and Ahlquist (1990) probably diverged in the Eocene or Oligocene. The oldest passerine fossils are from the upper Oligocene. During the middle and upper Tertiary, while the Corvida were radiating in Australia and New Guinea, the Passerida were radiating and dispersing in Eurasia, Africa, and North America. South America was isolated until the late Tertiary and the only passerines there during this time were the New World suboscines (Tyrannides). Members of the Passerida colonized South America in the Miocene. The long period of separation of these two Parvorders had led to many cases of convergent evolution to produce ecological counterparts in the two groups. Passerida generally have two humeral fossae (the Corvida have one)… Passerida is accepted as a distinct clade.
 
  Superfamily Muscicapoidea
ToL
  610 species, 113 genera.  
   Mostly insectivorous birds - worldwide distribution centered in the Paleotropics. One family endemic to the New World. Few in Australian region. Stocky, usually dull, and mostly sexually monomorphic.
 
  Waxwings and Allies
There is some question whether the Family Bombycillidae (waxwings) and their allies belongs here but the combination of independent analyses seems to support this position. Sibley and Monroe rank the first three families as Tribes (Dulini, Ptilogonatini, and Bombycillini) in the Family Bombycillidae. This family could be more closely related to the Sylvioidea and Passeroidea but this is not clear. Sibley and Ahlquist (1990) believe the group belongs with the Passeridia (despite the fact it has but one humeral fossa) and that it diverged from the Passerida lineage soon after the divergence of the two Parvorders.Hypocoliidae and Mohoidae are tenetatively placed here by Wikipedia. This cluster appears to be a distinct lineage of basal Passerida.
   The remainder of the Parvorder Passerida is generally regarded as monophyletic.
 
  Family Dulidae – Palmchat
Wiki     EoL
  1 species, 1 genus. Hispaniola (Lesser Antilles).
   Palmchats are small, resembling orioles but brown above and streaked buffy below (monomorphic). Their plumage is not silky like other members of the superfamily. They have a broad head with a stubby compressed bill, fairly long tails, and strong legs and feet. They are noisy and gregarious, forming foraging groups of up to 10 pairs. They feed on fruits of palms (and buds and flowers of other plants as well as nectar and small insects. They are found in the lowlands to mid-elevations where palm savannas can be found or in other open areas with scattered trees (parks and gardens). They build large communal stick nests (mainly in palms), often in the crown. Up to 50 pairs may nest together but each pair has its own nest entrance. They lay 2-4 eggs (more than one female may contribute) and both parents incubate for ~15 days. Chick fledge after 32 days but remain with their parents for some time.
 
  Family PtilogonatidaeSilky-flycatchers, Phainopepla
Wiki     Wiki     EoL
  4 (4) species, 3 genera (Phainoptila, Ptilogonys, Phainopepla). Southwestern US to Mexico and Panama. Dickinson (2007) includes this group as a subfamily of the Bombycillidae.
   These flycatchers have soft, silky plumage – usually gray or pale yellow – and small crests. They eat fruit and insects. They occur in open woodland (semi-desert for the Phainopepla, Phainopepla nitens) and nest in trees.   
 
  Family Bombycillidae – Waxwings
Wiki    EoL
EXAMPLE
  3 (3) species, 1 genus (Bombycilla). Northern Hemisphere.
   They are arboreal birds of northern forests feeding on insects in the summer and berries in winter. They wander  erratically outside the breeding season in closely integrated family and social groups.
   Waxwings have long wings with the 10th primary reduced. Their tail is short and even. Their secondaries are generally and tail feathers occasionally are tipped with red horny appendages. The tail is tipped with yellow. The bill is short, flat, flared basally, and minutely notched toward the tip. The gape is deeply cleft. Rictal bristles are few and short. Their feet are weak and the anterior toes are united basally. Sexes are alike. Their plumage is soft and velvety. They have a prominent crest. They feed on high-sugar fruits and berries but may also eat blossoms and some insects and larvae. They breed in loose colonies, timed by the availability of food. Their nests are placed on tree branches. They lay 3-7 spotted eggs, incubated by the female for 11-13 days. Young fledge in 14-18 days.
   Waxwings are "irruptive" species - abundant in some years, rare in others.    
    Cedar Waxwings Cedar Waxwings, Bombycilla cedrorum.
Sealoft. Photo by Irene Haskins
                                                   SI Web
 
  All Waxwings - Birds of the Northern Hemisphere.
   Bohemian Waxwing, Bombycilla garrulus. Northwestern North America, Finno-Scandinavia to Siberia east to the Sea of Okhotsk. Nomadic in winter reaching central North America, Europe and southern China and Japan.
   Cedar Waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum. North America, south to northern South America and the Greater Antilles in winter.
   Japanese Waxwing, Bombycilla japonica. Southeastern Siberia and northern Manchuria, wintering to southern China.
 
 
Hypocolius
Clements (2007) places the Grey Hypocolius here as a monotypic family.Related to waxwings? Sibley and Monroe (1990) place it after the Pycnonotidae in the Sylviioidea. Wikipedia also places it in the Sylviioidea, after the bulbuls. It is described with the Sylviioidea. Regard its placement as incertae sedis.
 
  (Family Mohoidae - Hawaiian Honeyeaters - Kioea and Oo)
Wiki
  5 species, 2 genera (Chaetoptila (EoL), Moho (EoL)). Hawaii. Extinct.
   Nectarivorous songbirds usually placed in the Family Meliphagidae (honeyeaters). However, the Hawaiian honeyaters appear to represent a case of convergent evolution. Recent DNA evidence places them with the Palmchat and waxwings and close to the silky-flycatchers. Passerida?
   
 

 

   
  Banner - Cedar Waxwing. Skyloft Villas, Seabrook, SC.