Birds of the World

COAST BIRDS
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  Index
WORLD BIRDS
  Contents
  Index

ANECDOTES

  Sylviioids
 
 
 

TRAITS
 Ratites
 Tinamous
 Cracids/Galli
 Waterfowl
   Screamers
   Ducks

 Penguins
 Loons
 Grebes
 Procellarids
   Albatrosses
   Petrels
   Storm-Petrels

Totipalmate Swm

   Tropicbirds
   Gannets/Boobies
   Pelicans
   Cormorants
   Anhingas
   Frigatebirds

 
Waders
   Herons
   Ibises
   Storks  

 NW Vultures
 Flamingos
 Raptors
 Gruiformes
   Buttonquail
   Bustards
   Cranes
   Rails

 Shorebirds
   Sandgrouse
   Plovers
   Oystercatchers
   Stilts
   Sandpipers
   Gulls/Terns
   Auks

 Pigeons
 Parrots
 Turacos
 Cuckoos
 Owls
 Frogmouths
 Nightjars
 Swifts/Humbd
 Colies
 Coraciae

   Hornbills
   Hoopoes
   Trogons
   Rollers
   Kingfishers
   Bee-eaters
   Jacamars/Puffbd

 
Pici
   Honeyguides
   Woodpeckers
   Barbets/Toucans

PASSERINES
   NZ WRENS
   OW SUBOSC

      Broadbills
      Pittas

 NW SUBOSC
   NW Flycatchers

   Becards
   Cotingas
   Manakins
   Antbirds
   Ovenbirds
   Woodcreepers
   Antthrushes
   Tapaculos 

 OSCINES
 Lyre-/Scrub-birds
 Bowerbirds
 Aust. Wrens
 Honeyeaters
 Scrubwrens
 Aust. Robins
 Kinglets
 Shrikes
 Vireos
 Whistlers
 Corvids
 Birds-of-Paradse
 OW Orioles
 Cuckoo-shrikes
 Fantails
 Drongos
 Monarchs
 Bush-shrikes
 Wattle-eyes
 Vangas
 Waxwings
 Dippers
 Thrushes
 OW Flycatchers
 Starlings
 Mimids
 Nuthatches
 N Creepers
 Wrens
 Gnatcatchers
 Tits/Parids
 Larks
 Swallows
 Leaf-Warblers
 Bulbuls
 Cisticolas
 White-eyes
 Babblers
 OW Warblers
 Flowerpeckers
 Sunbirds
 OW Sparrows
 Accentors
 Pipits
 Estridids
 Weavers
 Whydahs
 9-prim. Oscines

   Fringillines
   Carduelines
   Hawaiian Honycrp
   NW Sparrows
   NW Warblers
   Tanagers
   Cardinals
   NW Blackbirds

TOP

 
Passeriformes, Oscines, Passerida, Sylviioidea -
    Nuthatches, Creepers
 
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Passerida, Sylviioidea
Families: Nuthatches, Wallcreepers, Tree Creepers, African Creeper
 
Images:   
White-breasted Nuthatch
   
  Order Passeriformes - Perching Birds
   Suborder Passeres - "Oscines," Song Birds
Wiki     ToL     EoL
Wiki
     ToL
  Passerines. Most passerines are smaller than members of non-passerine orders. They have a perching foot with three toes directed forward and the one (the hallux) backward with locking tendons to facilitate perching when their tendons are flexed. All passerines scratch by bringing the foot over the wing. Incubation ranges from 11 -21 days. Young are altricial - they hatch blind with little or no down - and nidicolous - spending 10-15 days or so in the nest.  Subsequent development is rapid and young approach adult mass at fledging. Parents provide care beyond fledging.
Oscines, Suborder Passeres, are our "song birds" with complex syringeal muscles used to produce varied and complex vocalizations.
Passerida. Radiation in Eurasia, Africa and North America (with later colonization of South America). Passerida have two humeral fossae (Corvida have one).
Sylviioidea - drab, monomorphic sleek passerines, centered in Indo-Pacific areas.
 
  Superfamily Sylviioidea
Wiki     ToL
  1,195 species, 199 genera                                                                                                                                                                                                 
Largely insectivorous passerids. Distribution centered in the Indo-Pacific area with a few in Australia and still fewer in the New World. Individuals usually sleek and drab. Most species monomorphic.
 
  Nuthatches, Creepers, Wrens, Gnatcatchers
Sibley and Monroe (1990) place the following families in the Sylviioidea. This group might also be included in the Muscicapoidea.
   Sibley and Monroe (1990) group the nuthatches and wallcreepers (the first two families) as Subfamilies in the Family Sittidae. They group the creepers (two tribes), wrens, and gnatcatchers as subfamilies of the Family Certhiidae. As presented here the group is divided into the more traditional six families. The first four families are scansorial - some of their similarities could be convergent but DNA-DNA hybridization studies place them close together
 
  Family Sittidae – Nuthatches
Wiki     EoL
EXAMPLE
  24 (24) species, 1 genus (Sitta). (25 species, 2 genera if wallcreepers are included). Northern Hemisphere. Forested areas of North America and Eurasia. They are most diverse in southern Asia.
   Nuthatches are small woodland scansorial Passeres with a long hallux and front toes of unequal length. They are compact and have a short tail with 12 tail feathers. Nuthatches use only their feet in climbing - tails do not act as props. For this reason, they can move both up and down tree trunks, branches (or rock cliffs). They have large heads with sharp-pointed, chisel-shaped bills and short tails. They feed on insects, their eggs and larvae, spiders, fruits, and nuts (more animals in summer, more plants in winter). They may cache food for later use. The Eurasian Nuthatch, Sitta europeae, may wedge a net in a crevice before attacking it – hence the name of the group.         
   Nuthatches are monogamous. They are cavity nesters - they may use mud to reduce the size of the entrance hole. Some spread noxious materials or resin around the entrance to discourage predators. Usually the female incubates 4-9 eggs and the male provides food. Young fledge in 20-25 days. Both parents feed the chicks.
   We have three species that can be seen in South Carolina: the Red-breasted Nuthatch, White-breasted Nuthatch, and the Brown-headed Nuthatch.
    White-breasted Nuthatch White-breasted Nuthatch,
Sitta carolinensis
.
Clemson
                                SI Web
 
  Family Tichodromidae – Wallcreepers
Wiki    EoL
  1 (1) species, 1 genus (Tichodroma). Mountains of Eurasia (Pyrenees, Alps, Altay Mountains). Typically included with the nuthatches.
   They are small scansorial birds with a long, thin bill. They are blue-gray with darker flight feathers and a rufous panel in the wings and coverts. They have a butterfly-like flight. They feed on insects and nests in rock crevices. They are birds of high mountains and may be difficult to see. They are insectivores, foraging on rocks and flycatching from a rock perch.
   The female builds a cup nest in a sheltered crevice or hole. The nest typically has 2 entrances. They lay 4-5 eggs which are incubated for 19-20 days by the female. The male feeds the incubating hen and both parents feed the chicks which fledge in 26-30 days.
 
  Family Certhiidae – Northern (Tree) Creepers
Wiki     EoL
EXAMPLE
  6 (7) species, 1 genus (Certhia). Holarctic – may have originated in the Old World? Harris (2009) includes the Spotted Creeper (below) in this family.
   These are small scansorial woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin, down-curved bills and long, curved claws. They have a long tail used to prop the bird vertically on tree trunks and branches - like woodpeckers, not nuthatches. (The tail feathers are molted from the outside inward and the stiff central pair is lost only after the others are grown.) They usually spiral up a tree or branch then fly to the base of the next tree, feeding on insects and their eggs and larvae as they forage. Their song is thin and high-pitched but it may alert you to their presence in winter.
   They build a loose nest in crevices or behind loose bark on trees. The female incubates the 3-6 eggs for 14-15 days. Young fledge after 15-16 days..        
   We have one representative, the Brown Creeper.    
 
  Family Salpornithidae – African (Spotted) Creeper
Wiki     EoL
  1 species, 1 genus (Salpornis). Sub-Saharan Africa and northern India. May be included with the creepers.
   A small bird found in open deciduous forest and mangrove swamps. They are barred and spotted and twice as massive as treecreepers. They have a thin, down-curved bill but lacks stiff tail feathers of the treecreepers.
   The nest is a cup placed on a branch. The clutch is usually 2 eggs in India, 3 in Africa.
   
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



   
  Banner - White-breasted Nuthatch. Clemson, SC.