Birds of the World

COAST BIRDS
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WORLD BIRDS
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ANECDOTES

  Parulids
 
 
 

TRAITS
 Ratites
 Tinamous
 Cracids/Galli
 Waterfowl
   Screamers
   Ducks

 Penguins
 Loons
 Grebes
 Procellarids
   Albatrosses
   Petrels
   Storm-Petrels

Totipalmate Swm

   Tropicbirds
   Gannets/Boobies
   Pelicans
   Cormorants
   Anhingas
   Frigatebirds

 
Waders
   Herons
   Ibises
   Storks  

 NW Vultures
 Flamingos
 Raptors
 Gruiformes
   Buttonquail
   Bustards
   Cranes
   Rails

 Shorebirds
   Sandgrouse
   Plovers
   Oystercatchers
   Stilts
   Sandpipers
   Gulls/Terns
   Auks

 Pigeons
 Parrots
 Turacos
 Cuckoos
 Owls
 Frogmouths
 Nightjars
 Swifts/Humbd
 Colies
 Coraciae

   Hornbills
   Hoopoes
   Trogons
   Rollers
   Kingfishers
   Bee-eaters
   Jacamars/Puffbd

 
Pici
   Honeyguides
   Woodpeckers
   Barbets/Toucans

PASSERINES
   NZ WRENS
   OW SUBOSC

      Broadbills
      Pittas

 NW SUBOSC
   NW Flycatchers

   Becards
   Cotingas
   Manakins
   Antbirds
   Ovenbirds
   Woodcreepers
   Antthrushes
   Tapaculos 

 OSCINES
 Lyre-/Scrub-birds
 Bowerbirds
 Aust. Wrens
 Honeyeaters
 Scrubwrens
 Aust. Robins
 Kinglets
 Shrikes
 Vireos
 Whistlers
 Corvids
 Birds-of-Paradse
 OW Orioles
 Cuckoo-shrikes
 Fantails
 Drongos
 Monarchs
 Bush-shrikes
 Wattle-eyes
 Vangas
 Waxwings
 Dippers
 Thrushes
 OW Flycatchers
 Starlings
 Mimids
 Nuthatches
 N Creepers
 Wrens
 Gnatcatchers
 Tits/Parids
 Larks
 Swallows
 Leaf-Warblers
 Bulbuls
 Cisticolas
 White-eyes
 Babblers
 OW Warblers
 Flowerpeckers
 Sunbirds
 OW Sparrows
 Accentors
 Pipits
 Estridids
 Weavers
 Whydahs
 9-prim. Oscines

   Fringillines
   Carduelines
   Hawaiian Honycrp
   NW Sparrows
   NW Warblers
   Tanagers
   Cardinals
   NW Blackbirds

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Passeriformes, Oscines, Passerida, Passeroidea - Parulids
 
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Passerida, Passeroidea, Nine-primaried Oscines
Family: Wood Warblers - Parulids, New World Warblers
 
Images:   
Yellow-rumped Warbler
   
  Order Passeriformes - Perching Birds
   Suborder Passeres - "Oscines," Song Birds
Wiki     ToL     EoL
Wiki     ToL
  Passerines. Most passerines are smaller than members of non-passerine orders. They have a perching foot with three toes directed forward and the one (the hallux) backward with locking tendons to facilitate perching when their tendons are flexed. All passerines scratch by bringing the foot over the wing. Incubation ranges from 11 -21 days. Young are altricial - they hatch blind with little or no down - and nidicolous - spending 10-15 days or so in the nest.  Subsequent development is rapid and young approach adult mass at fledging. Parents provide care beyond fledging.
Oscines, Suborder Passeres, are our "song birds" with complex syringeal muscles used to produce varied and complex vocalizations.
Passerida. Radiation in Eurasia, Africa and North America (with later colonization of South America). Passerida have two humeral fossae (Corvida have one).
Passeroidea - herbivores (many seed-eaters) centered in the Palearctic and New World. Many are bright and sexually dimorphic.
Nine-primaried Oscines. Nine functional primaries in the wing.
 
  Family Parulidae – Wood WarblersZeledonia
Wiki      Wiki      EoL
EXAMPLE
  115 (118-112) species, 25 (24) genera. New World. Sub-Arctic North America, Middle America and the Caribbean islands, south through tropical South America.
   Sibley and Monroe (1990), Clements (2007), Dickinson (2003), and Harris (2009) all place the Wrenthrush (Zeledonia) in the Parulidae.
   Wood-warblers have 9 primaries - the 10th is reduced. Wood-Warblers are slender- or flat-billed passeres with neither the terrtials nor hind claw elongate (as in pipits) nor is the tongue deeply cleft hear the tip. Some have rictal bristles, others lack them. They appear closely related to emberizines (sparrows, buntings), cardinals, icterids, and tanagers - all are included in the Family Emberizidae in some classifications.
   Wood-warblers are all small birds (the largest, if it is a warbler, is the Yellow-breasted Chat, Icteria virens). Warblers are  mostly arboreal but some are terrestrial. Most are insectivorous but many also eat berries and fruit in winter and some will feed on plant nectar. The Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata, feeds extensively on wax myrtle and poison ivy berries in winter. Redstarts supplement normal foraging with "flycatching."  Some frequent marshes (yellowthroats), others dense thickets but they are most widespread in mixed and coniferous forests in the north. Tropical species breed from montane cloud forests to rain forest and riparian woodland. Among several genera (Dendroica) there is often considerable sexual dimorphism and adult breeding plumages are distinct. Where several species coexist, they appear to effectively partition the habitat to avoid direct competition - some will feed high, others low, some on the outer branches, others on the trunk and inner limbs, etc. At least one species is scansorial (Black-and-white Warbler). Some also forage on the ground.
   More northern populations migrate in winter. In the spring, warblers can be located and identified by their song – it helps locate them if you develop an ear for their vocalizations. Males often have a primary song - used to defend territory and advertise for females. Their secondary song is unaccented and may be used by a paired bird near the nest. The song of some more terrestrial warblers (such as the Ovenbird, Seiurus noveboracensis) are particularly loud and ear-catching. In some species, females also sing. Fall warblers are in their basic (winter, non-breeding or basic) plumage and are more difficult to identify than spring birds and they seldom sing (but you can learn the contact notes of common winter species to help locate them). 
   Most species are monogamous - a few are polygynous. Nest sites are variable - some (Prothonotary Warbler, Prothonotaria citrea) nest in holes - others choose sites from the ground to the tree-tops. Most nests are open cups and the female does most of the building and incubation. They lay 2-9 eggs (more in higher latitudes, fewer in lower latitudes where they may be more than one brood). Eggs are incubated for 10-14 days. Young fledge in 8-14 days Both parents feed the young. Warblers are commonly parasitized by cowbirds. Hybridization is not uncommon in the family (see Blue-winged, Vermivora pinus, and Golden-winged, V. chrysoptera, Warblers).
   This is an interesting group. Many warblers migrate through our area although most migrants proceed farther inland before landing. For several years, we set mist-nets around dune wetlands on Plum Island off Newburyport, NH, in late May-early June. Because the vegetation was low, we managed to catch arboreal as well as ground-dwelling warblers. Over a week, we could capture 27-29 of the 30 odd species of warblers found in northeastern North America - sorry I don't have pictures.
   Emberizids (including warblers, tanagers, and most "sparrows") are nocturnal migrants (like thrushes). They feed during the day and fly at night. See MIGRATION
   Clements (2007) places the Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola, in a separate family (above). 
 

Hellcat Swamp

Hellcat Swamp, Parker River National Wildlife Refuge, Plum Island, near Newburyport, NH. Maritime shrub-scrub and
migrant warbler habitat...

Hellcat Swamp

 

 

 
Yellow-rumped Warbler,
Dendroica coronata
SI Web .
Yellow-rumped Warbler Audubon's Warbler







  Photo by
  Ed Kondon

Myrtle Warbler. Palmetto Lake (above)

Audubon's Warbler, Point Lobos State Preserve, Carmel, CA (right)

 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   
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