Birds of the World

COAST BIRDS
  Contents
  Index
WORLD BIRDS
  Contents
  Index

ANECDOTES

  Cardinals
 
 
 

TRAITS
 Ratites
 Tinamous
 Cracids/Galli
 Waterfowl
   Screamers
   Ducks

 Penguins
 Loons
 Grebes
 Procellarids
   Albatrosses
   Petrels
   Storm-Petrels

Totipalmate Swm

   Tropicbirds
   Gannets/Boobies
   Pelicans
   Cormorants
   Anhingas
   Frigatebirds

 
Waders
   Herons
   Ibises
   Storks  

 NW Vultures
 Flamingos
 Raptors
 Gruiformes
   Buttonquail
   Bustards
   Cranes
   Rails

 Shorebirds
   Sandgrouse
   Plovers
   Oystercatchers
   Stilts
   Sandpipers
   Gulls/Terns
   Auks

 Pigeons
 Parrots
 Turacos
 Cuckoos
 Owls
 Frogmouths
 Nightjars
 Swifts/Humbd
 Colies
 Coraciae

   Hornbills
   Hoopoes
   Trogons
   Rollers
   Kingfishers
   Bee-eaters
   Jacamars/Puffbd

 
Pici
   Honeyguides
   Woodpeckers
   Barbets/Toucans

PASSERINES
   NZ WRENS
   OW SUBOSC

      Broadbills
      Pittas

 NW SUBOSC
   NW Flycatchers

   Becards
   Cotingas
   Manakins
   Antbirds
   Ovenbirds
   Woodcreepers
   Antthrushes
   Tapaculos 

 OSCINES
 Lyre-/Scrub-birds
 Bowerbirds
 Aust. Wrens
 Honeyeaters
 Scrubwrens
 Aust. Robins
 Kinglets
 Shrikes
 Vireos
 Whistlers
 Corvids
 Birds-of-Paradse
 OW Orioles
 Cuckoo-shrikes
 Fantails
 Drongos
 Monarchs
 Bush-shrikes
 Wattle-eyes
 Vangas
 Waxwings
 Dippers
 Thrushes
 OW Flycatchers
 Starlings
 Mimids
 Nuthatches
 N Creepers
 Wrens
 Gnatcatchers
 Tits/Parids
 Larks
 Swallows
 Leaf-Warblers
 Bulbuls
 Cisticolas
 White-eyes
 Babblers
 OW Warblers
 Flowerpeckers
 Sunbirds
 OW Sparrows
 Accentors
 Pipits
 Estridids
 Weavers
 Whydahs
 9-prim. Oscines

   Fringillines
   Carduelines
   Hawaiian Honycrp
   NW Sparrows
   NW Warblers
   Tanagers
   Cardinals
   NW Blackbirds

TOP

 
Passeriformes, Oscines, Passerida, Passeroidea - Cardinals
 
Skip to:   
Passerida, Passeroidea, Nine-primaried Oscines
Family: Cardinals
 
Images:   
Painted Bunting
   
  Order Passeriformes - Perching Birds
   Suborder Passeres - "Oscines," Song Birds
Wiki     ToL     EoL
Wiki     ToL
  Passerines. Most passerines are smaller than members of non-passerine orders. They have a perching foot with three toes directed forward and the one (the hallux) backward with locking tendons to facilitate perching when their tendons are flexed. All passerines scratch by bringing the foot over the wing. Incubation ranges from 11 -21 days. Young are altricial - they hatch blind with little or no down - and nidicolous - spending 10-15 days or so in the nest.  Subsequent development is rapid and young approach adult mass at fledging. Parents provide care beyond fledging.
Oscines, Suborder Passeres, are our "song birds" with complex syringeal muscles used to produce varied and complex vocalizations.
Passerida. Radiation in Eurasia, Africa and North America (with later colonization of South America). Passerida have two humeral fossae (Corvida have one).
Passeroidea - herbivores (many seed-eaters) centered in the Palearctic and New World. Many are bright and sexually dimorphic.
Nine-primaried Oscines. Nine functional primaries in the wing.
 
  Family Cardinalidae – Cardinals, Grosbeaks
Wiki     EoL
EXAMPLE
  Both the AOU and ABA now group tanagers and cardinals in the Family Cardinalidae. We have kept the more traditional split of these groups for convenience.
  42 (43) species, 13 (11) genera. New World seed-eaters, typically found in open woodland in North and South America. The “North American”  or "Tropical" Buntings (Passerina - Indigo, Painted, etc.) and the Blue and Rose-breasted Grosbeaks and saltators (tropical South America) are also included in this group. Note that our tanagers may also be moved to this group (above).
   Core genera of the family include Spiza, Pheucticus, Cardinalis, Caryothraustes, Parkerthraustes, Rhodothraupis, Periporphyrus, Saltator, Cyanoloxia, Cyanocompsa, Passerina. Blue seedeaters (Amaurospiza) may be added (from the Emberizidae). Piranga, Chlorothraupis, Habia may also be added from the Thraupidae. The warbler (Parulidae) genus Granatellus (chats - 3 spp) has a very heavy bill and may also belong here. Saltators (Saltator, 16 spp), the Yellow-billed Blue Finch (Porphyrospiza), and the Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak (Parkerthraustes), however, appear not to be closely related to the rest of the family. These species appear to be closer to the tanagers. See Wiki for a suggested list of clades.
   Cardinalines are small to medium-sized birds with a rudimentary 10th primary (9-primaried oscines) of the New World. . The bill is usually large and conical (a seed-cracking bill) and some species may be brightly colored. They have short, notched tails. All are sexually dimorphic. and males may be slightly larger. The first post-juvenal plumage resembles that of adult females in dichromic species. Males require up to two years to achieve breeding plumage. Adults have a single complete post-nuptial molt (some have a partial prenuptial molt and buntings have a partial supplemental molt).
   Individuals feed in low branches or on the ground. They may hover while hunting or "flycatch." Insects make up the bulk of the summer diet and seeds are important in winter. Some species also eat berries. They are found in a variety of habitats, ranging from grassland and scrub to secondary forests, margins, and forest interiors.
   Cardinalines are monogamous. They breed seasonally in higher latitudes but year round in the tropics. They nest solitarily, building an open cup, usually well hidden in dense shrubs or trees (some nest on the ground). Females do most of the building and incubating. They lay 2-4 eggs and fledge in 7-15 days, often before they can fly. Both parents feed the young and family groups remain together for 2-3 weeks after fledging. Most are subject to nest parasitism by cowbirds.
   The Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis, is a permanent resident in our area. Other species are nocturnal neotropical migrants.
   

Painted Bunting male,
Passerina ciris.
Marsh Haven
                       SI Web

   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   
  Banner - Painted Bunting. North Beach.